This advanced course explores the scope and limitation of the biological, psychological, and sociological theories of violence and trauma in a developmental context. The impact of direct and indirect trauma on the adaptation and mental health of children and adolescents, and on family functioning, is investigated. Cultural and developmental differences in response to trauma are examined. Particular focus is on identifying and challenging the stereotypic biases and prejudicial notions that interfere with clinical judgments about child and adolescent abuse. Psychodynamic, systems, feminist, attachment, social learning, and cognitive behavioral perspectives are critically evaluated. The differential diagnosis and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorders and dissociative disorders as consequences of childhood victimization are examined. The course will build on the knowledge and skills acquired in the foundation year Human Behavior in the Social Environment and Practice courses.